@inproceedings{3852,
abstract = {We introduce two-level discounted games played by two players on a perfect-information stochastic game graph. The upper level game is a discounted game and the lower level game is an undiscounted reachability game. Two-level games model hierarchical and sequential decision making under uncertainty across different time scales. We show the existence of pure memoryless optimal strategies for both players and an ordered field property for such games. We show that if there is only one player (Markov decision processes), then the values can be computed in polynomial time. It follows that whether the value of a player is equal to a given rational constant in two-level discounted games can be decided in NP intersected coNP. We also give an alternate strategy improvement algorithm to compute the value. },
author = {Chatterjee, Krishnendu and Majumdar, Ritankar},
location = {Minori, Italy},
pages = {22 -- 29},
publisher = {EPTCS},
title = {{Discounting in games across time scales}},
doi = {10.4204/EPTCS.25.6},
volume = {25},
year = {2010},
}
@inproceedings{3845,
abstract = {This paper presents Aligators, a tool for the generation of universally quantified array invariants. Aligators leverages recurrence solving and algebraic techniques to carry out inductive reasoning over array content. The Aligators’ loop extraction module allows treatment of multi-path loops by exploiting their commutativity and serializability properties. Our experience in applying Aligators on a collection of loops from open source software projects indicates the applicability of recurrence and algebraic solving techniques for reasoning about arrays.},
author = {Henzinger, Thomas A and Hottelier, Thibaud and Kovács, Laura and Rybalchenko, Andrey},
location = {Yogyakarta, Indonesia},
pages = {348 -- 356},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{Aligators for arrays}},
doi = {10.1007/978-3-642-16242-8_25},
volume = {6397},
year = {2010},
}
@article{4134,
abstract = {All species are restricted in their distribution. Currently, ecological models can only explain such limits if patches vary in quality, leading to asymmetrical dispersal, or if genetic variation is too low at the margins for adaptation. However, population genetic models suggest that the increase in genetic variance resulting from dispersal should allow adaptation to almost any ecological gradient. Clearly therefore, these models miss something that prevents evolution in natural populations. We developed an individual-based simulation to explore stochastic effects in these models. At high carrying capacities, our simulations largely agree with deterministic predictions. However, when carrying capacity is low, the population fails to establish for a wide range of parameter values where adaptation was expected from previous models. Stochastic or transient effects appear critical around the boundaries in parameter space between simulation behaviours. Dispersal, gradient steepness, and population density emerge as key factors determining adaptation on an ecological gradient. },
author = {Bridle, Jon and Polechova, Jitka and Kawata, Masakado and Butlin, Roger},
journal = {Ecology Letters},
number = {4},
pages = {485 -- 494},
publisher = {Wiley-Blackwell},
title = {{Why is adaptation prevented at ecological margins? New insights from individual-based simulations}},
doi = {10.1111/j.1461-0248.2010.01442.x},
volume = {13},
year = {2010},
}
@inproceedings{4362,
abstract = {Software transactional memories (STMs) promise simple and efficient concurrent programming. Several correctness properties have been proposed for STMs. Based on a bounded conflict graph algorithm for verifying correctness of STMs, we develop TRACER, a tool for runtime verification of STM implementations. The novelty of TRACER lies in the way it combines coarse and precise runtime analyses to guarantee sound and complete verification in an efficient manner. We implement TRACER in the TL2 STM implementation. We evaluate the performance of TRACER on STAMP benchmarks. While a precise runtime verification technique based on conflict graphs results in an average slowdown of 60x, the two-level approach of TRACER performs complete verification with an average slowdown of around 25x across different benchmarks.},
author = {Singh, Vasu},
editor = {Sokolsky, Oleg and Rosu, Grigore and Tilmann, Nikolai and Barringer, Howard and Falcone, Ylies and Finkbeiner, Bernd and Havelund, Klaus and Lee, Insup and Pace, Gordon},
location = {St. Julians, Malta},
pages = {421 -- 435},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{Runtime verification for software transactional memories}},
doi = {10.1007/978-3-642-16612-9_32},
volume = {6418},
year = {2010},
}
@inproceedings{4381,
abstract = {Cloud computing aims to give users virtually unlimited pay-per-use computing resources without the burden of managing the underlying infrastructure. We claim that, in order to realize the full potential of cloud computing, the user must be presented with a pricing model that offers flexibility at the requirements level, such as a choice between different degrees of execution speed and the cloud provider must be presented with a programming model that offers flexibility at the execution level, such as a choice between different scheduling policies. In such a flexible framework, with each job, the user purchases a virtual computer with the desired speed and cost characteristics, and the cloud provider can optimize the utilization of resources across a stream of jobs from different users. We designed a flexible framework to test our hypothesis, which is called FlexPRICE (Flexible Provisioning of Resources in a Cloud Environment) and works as follows. A user presents a job to the cloud. The cloud finds different schedules to execute the job and presents a set of quotes to the user in terms of price and duration for the execution. The user then chooses a particular quote and the cloud is obliged to execute the job according to the chosen quote. FlexPRICE thus hides the complexity of the actual scheduling decisions from the user, but still provides enough flexibility to meet the users actual demands. We implemented FlexPRICE in a simulator called PRICES that allows us to experiment with our framework. We observe that FlexPRICE provides a wide range of execution options-from fast and expensive to slow and cheap-- for the whole spectrum of data-intensive and computation-intensive jobs. We also observe that the set of quotes computed by FlexPRICE do not vary as the number of simultaneous jobs increases.},
author = {Henzinger, Thomas A and Tomar, Anmol and Singh, Vasu and Wies, Thomas and Zufferey, Damien},
location = {Miami, USA},
pages = {83 -- 90},
publisher = {IEEE},
title = {{FlexPRICE: Flexible provisioning of resources in a cloud environment}},
doi = {10.1109/CLOUD.2010.71 },
year = {2010},
}
@inproceedings{489,
abstract = {Graph games of infinite length are a natural model for open reactive processes: one player represents the controller, trying to ensure a given specification, and the other represents a hostile environment. The evolution of the system depends on the decisions of both players, supplemented by chance. In this work, we focus on the notion of randomised strategy. More specifically, we show that three natural definitions may lead to very different results: in the most general cases, an almost-surely winning situation may become almost-surely losing if the player is only allowed to use a weaker notion of strategy. In more reasonable settings, translations exist, but they require infinite memory, even in simple cases. Finally, some traditional problems becomes undecidable for the strongest type of strategies.},
author = {Cristau, Julien and David, Claire and Horn, Florian},
booktitle = {Proceedings of GandALF 2010},
location = {Minori, Amalfi Coast, Italy},
pages = {30 -- 39},
publisher = {Open Publishing Association},
title = {{How do we remember the past in randomised strategies? }},
doi = {10.4204/EPTCS.25.7},
volume = {25},
year = {2010},
}
@inproceedings{3857,
abstract = {We consider probabilistic automata on infinite words with acceptance defined by safety, reachability, Büchi, coBüchi, and limit-average conditions. We consider quantitative and qualitative decision problems. We present extensions and adaptations of proofs for probabilistic finite automata and present an almost complete characterization of the decidability and undecidability frontier of the quantitative and qualitative decision problems for probabilistic automata on infinite words.},
author = {Chatterjee, Krishnendu and Henzinger, Thomas A},
location = {Singapore, Singapore},
pages = {1 -- 16},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{Probabilistic Automata on infinite words: decidability and undecidability results}},
doi = {10.1007/978-3-642-15643-4_1},
volume = {6252},
year = {2010},
}
@misc{5391,
abstract = {Concurrent data structures with fine-grained synchronization are notoriously difficult to implement correctly. The difficulty of reasoning about these implementations does not stem from the number of variables or the program size, but rather from the large number of possible interleavings. These implementations are therefore prime candidates for model checking. We introduce an algorithm for verifying linearizability of singly-linked heap-based concurrent data structures. We consider a model consisting of an unbounded heap where each node consists an element from an unbounded data domain, with a restricted set of operations for testing and updating pointers and data elements. Our main result is that linearizability is decidable for programs that invoke a fixed number of methods, possibly in parallel. This decidable fragment covers many of the common implementation techniques — fine-grained locking, lazy synchronization, and lock-free synchronization. We also show how the technique can be used to verify optimistic implementations with the help of programmer annotations. We developed a verification tool CoLT and evaluated it on a representative sample of Java implementations of the concurrent set data structure. The tool verified linearizability of a number of implementations, found a known error in a lock-free imple- mentation and proved that the corrected version is linearizable.},
author = {Cerny, Pavol and Radhakrishna, Arjun and Zufferey, Damien and Chaudhuri, Swarat and Alur, Rajeev},
issn = {2664-1690},
pages = {27},
publisher = {IST Austria},
title = {{Model checking of linearizability of concurrent list implementations}},
doi = {10.15479/AT:IST-2010-0001},
year = {2010},
}
@inproceedings{3864,
abstract = {Often one has a preference order among the different systems that satisfy a given specification. Under a probabilistic assumption about the possible inputs, such a preference order is naturally expressed by a weighted automaton, which assigns to each word a value, such that a system is preferred if it generates a higher expected value. We solve the following optimal-synthesis problem: given an omega-regular specification, a Markov chain that describes the distribution of inputs, and a weighted automaton that measures how well a system satisfies the given specification tinder the given input assumption, synthesize a system that optimizes the measured value. For safety specifications and measures that are defined by mean-payoff automata, the optimal-synthesis problem amounts to finding a strategy in a Markov decision process (MDP) that is optimal for a long-run average reward objective, which can be done in polynomial time. For general omega-regular specifications, the solution rests on a new, polynomial-time algorithm for computing optimal strategies in MDPs with mean-payoff parity objectives. We present some experimental results showing optimal systems that were automatically generated in this way.},
author = {Chatterjee, Krishnendu and Henzinger, Thomas A and Jobstmann, Barbara and Singh, Rohit},
location = {Edinburgh, United Kingdom},
pages = {380 -- 395},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{Measuring and synthesizing systems in probabilistic environments}},
doi = {10.1007/978-3-642-14295-6_34},
volume = {6174},
year = {2010},
}
@inproceedings{4393,
abstract = {Boolean notions of correctness are formalized by preorders on systems. Quantitative measures of correctness can be formalized by real-valued distance functions between systems, where the distance between implementation and specification provides a measure of “fit” or “desirability.” We extend the simulation preorder to the quantitative setting, by making each player of a simulation game pay a certain price for her choices. We use the resulting games with quantitative objectives to define three different simulation distances. The correctness distance measures how much the specification must be changed in order to be satisfied by the implementation. The coverage distance measures how much the implementation restricts the degrees of freedom offered by the specification. The robustness distance measures how much a system can deviate from the implementation description without violating the specification. We consider these distances for safety as well as liveness specifications. The distances can be computed in polynomial time for safety specifications, and for liveness specifications given by weak fairness constraints. We show that the distance functions satisfy the triangle inequality, that the distance between two systems does not increase under parallel composition with a third system, and that the distance between two systems can be bounded from above and below by distances between abstractions of the two systems. These properties suggest that our simulation distances provide an appropriate basis for a quantitative theory of discrete systems. We also demonstrate how the robustness distance can be used to measure how many transmission errors are tolerated by error correcting codes.},
author = {Cerny, Pavol and Henzinger, Thomas A and Radhakrishna, Arjun},
location = {Paris, France},
pages = {235 -- 268},
publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik},
title = {{Simulation distances}},
doi = {10.1007/978-3-642-15375-4_18},
volume = {6269},
year = {2010},
}