TY - JOUR
AB - The concept of the entanglement between spin and orbital degrees of freedom plays a crucial role in our understanding of various phases and exotic ground states in a broad class of materials, including orbitally ordered materials and spin liquids. We investigate how the spin-orbital entanglement in a Mott insulator depends on the value of the spin-orbit coupling of the relativistic origin. To this end, we numerically diagonalize a one-dimensional spin-orbital model with Kugel-Khomskii exchange interactions between spins and orbitals on different sites supplemented by the on-site spin-orbit coupling. In the regime of small spin-orbit coupling with regard to the spin-orbital exchange, the ground state to a large extent resembles the one obtained in the limit of vanishing spin-orbit coupling. On the other hand, for large spin-orbit coupling the ground state can, depending on the model parameters, either still show negligible spin-orbital entanglement or evolve to a highly spin-orbitally-entangled phase with completely distinct properties that are described by an effective XXZ model. The presented results suggest that (i) the spin-orbital entanglement may be induced by large on-site spin-orbit coupling, as found in the 5d transition metal oxides, such as the iridates; (ii) for Mott insulators with weak spin-orbit coupling of Ising type, such as, e.g., the alkali hyperoxides, the effects of the spin-orbit coupling on the ground state can, in the first order of perturbation theory, be neglected.
AU - Gotfryd, Dorota
AU - Paerschke, Ekaterina
AU - Chaloupka, Jiri
AU - Oles, Andrzej M.
AU - Wohlfeld, Krzysztof
ID - 7594
IS - 1
JF - Physical Review Research
TI - How spin-orbital entanglement depends on the spin-orbit coupling in a Mott insulator
VL - 2
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - A few-body cluster is a building block of a many-body system in a gas phase provided the temperature at most is of the order of the binding energy of this cluster. Here we illustrate this statement by considering a system of tubes filled with dipolar distinguishable particles. We calculate the partition function, which determines the probability to find a few-body cluster at a given temperature. The input for our calculations—the energies of few-body clusters—is estimated using the harmonic approximation. We first describe and demonstrate the validity of our numerical procedure. Then we discuss the results featuring melting of the zero-temperature many-body state into a gas of free particles and few-body clusters. For temperature higher than its binding energy threshold, the dimers overwhelmingly dominate the ensemble, where the remaining probability is in free particles. At very high temperatures free (harmonic oscillator trap-bound) particle dominance is eventually reached. This structure evolution appears both for one and two particles in each layer providing crucial information about the behavior of ultracold dipolar gases. The investigation addresses the transition region between few- and many-body physics as a function of temperature using a system of ten dipoles in five tubes.
AU - Armstrong, Jeremy R.
AU - Jensen, Aksel S.
AU - Volosniev, Artem
AU - Zinner, Nikolaj T.
ID - 7882
IS - 4
JF - Mathematics
TI - Clusters in separated tubes of tilted dipoles
VL - 8
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We explore the time evolution of two impurities in a trapped one-dimensional Bose gas that follows a change of the boson-impurity interaction. We study the induced impurity-impurity interactions and their effect on the quench dynamics. In particular, we report on the size of the impurity cloud, the impurity-impurity entanglement, and the impurity-impurity correlation function. The presented numerical simulations are based upon the variational multilayer multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree method for bosons. To analyze and quantify induced impurity-impurity correlations, we employ an effective two-body Hamiltonian with a contact interaction. We show that the effective model consistent with the mean-field attraction of two heavy impurities explains qualitatively our results for weak interactions. Our findings suggest that the quench dynamics in cold-atom systems can be a tool for studying impurity-impurity correlations.
AU - Mistakidis, S. I.
AU - Volosniev, Artem
AU - Schmelcher, P.
ID - 7919
JF - Physical Review Research
SN - 2643-1564
TI - Induced correlations between impurities in a one-dimensional quenched Bose gas
VL - 2
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We study a mobile quantum impurity, possessing internal rotational degrees of freedom, confined to a ring in the presence of a many-particle bosonic bath. By considering the recently introduced rotating polaron problem, we define the Hamiltonian and examine the energy spectrum. The weak-coupling regime is studied by means of a variational ansatz in the truncated Fock space. The corresponding spectrum indicates that there emerges a coupling between the internal and orbital angular momenta of the impurity as a consequence of the phonon exchange. We interpret the coupling as a phonon-mediated spin-orbit coupling and quantify it by using a correlation function between the internal and the orbital angular momentum operators. The strong-coupling regime is investigated within the Pekar approach, and it is shown that the correlation function of the ground state shows a kink at a critical coupling, that is explained by a sharp transition from the noninteracting state to the states that exhibit strong interaction with the surroundings. The results might find applications in such fields as spintronics or topological insulators where spin-orbit coupling is of crucial importance.
AU - Maslov, Mikhail
AU - Lemeshko, Mikhail
AU - Yakaboylu, Enderalp
ID - 7933
IS - 18
JF - Physical Review B
SN - 24699950
TI - Synthetic spin-orbit coupling mediated by a bosonic environment
VL - 101
ER -
TY - THES
AB - The oft-quoted dictum by Arthur Schawlow: ``A diatomic molecule has one atom too many'' has been disavowed. Inspired by the possibility to experimentally manipulate and enhance chemical reactivity in helium nanodroplets, we investigate the rotation of coupled cold molecules in the presence of a many-body environment.
In this thesis, we introduce new variational approaches to quantum impurities and apply them to the Fröhlich polaron - a quasiparticle formed out of an electron (or other point-like impurity) in a polar medium, and to the angulon - a quasiparticle formed out of a rotating molecule in a bosonic bath.
With this theoretical toolbox, we reveal the self-localization transition for the angulon quasiparticle. We show that, unlike for polarons, self-localization of angulons occurs at finite impurity-bath coupling already at the mean-field level. The transition is accompanied by the spherical-symmetry breaking of the angulon ground state and a discontinuity in the first derivative of the ground-state energy. Moreover, the type of symmetry breaking is dictated by the symmetry of the microscopic impurity-bath interaction, which leads to a number of distinct self-localized states.
For the system containing multiple impurities, by analogy with the bipolaron, we introduce the biangulon quasiparticle describing two rotating molecules that align with respect to each other due to the effective attractive interaction mediated by the excitations of the bath. We study this system from the strong-coupling regime to the weak molecule-bath interaction regime. We show that the molecules tend to have a strong alignment in the ground state, the biangulon shows shifted angulon instabilities and an additional spectral instability, where resonant angular momentum transfer between the molecules and the bath takes place. Finally, we introduce a diagonalization scheme that allows us to describe the transition from two separated angulons to a biangulon as a function of the distance between the two molecules.
AU - Li, Xiang
ID - 8958
SN - 2663-337X
TI - Rotation of coupled cold molecules in the presence of a many-body environment
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We investigate the ground-state energy of a one-dimensional Fermi gas with two bosonic impurities. We consider spinless fermions with no fermion-fermion interactions. The fermion-impurity and impurity-impurity interactions are modeled with Dirac delta functions. First, we study the case where impurity and fermion have equal masses, and the impurity-impurity two-body interaction is identical to the fermion-impurity interaction, such that the system is solvable with the Bethe ansatz. For attractive interactions, we find that the energy of the impurity-impurity subsystem is below the energy of the bound state that exists without the Fermi gas. We interpret this as a manifestation of attractive boson-boson interactions induced by the fermionic medium, and refer to the impurity-impurity subsystem as an in-medium bound state. For repulsive interactions, we find no in-medium bound states. Second, we construct an effective model to describe these interactions, and compare its predictions to the exact solution. We use this effective model to study nonintegrable systems with unequal masses and/or potentials. We discuss parameter regimes for which impurity-impurity attraction induced by the Fermi gas can lead to the formation of in-medium bound states made of bosons that repel each other in the absence of the Fermi gas.
AU - Huber, D.
AU - Hammer, H.-W.
AU - Volosniev, Artem
ID - 7190
IS - 3
JF - Physical Review Research
SN - 2643-1564
TI - In-medium bound states of two bosonic impurities in a one-dimensional Fermi gas
VL - 1
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The angular momentum of molecules, or, equivalently, their rotation in three-dimensional space, is ideally suited for quantum control. Molecular angular momentum is naturally quantized, time evolution is governed by a well-known Hamiltonian with only a few accurately known parameters, and transitions between rotational levels can be driven by external fields from various parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. Control over the rotational motion can be exerted in one-, two-, and many-body scenarios, thereby allowing one to probe Anderson localization, target stereoselectivity of bimolecular reactions, or encode quantum information to name just a few examples. The corresponding approaches to quantum control are pursued within separate, and typically disjoint, subfields of physics, including ultrafast science, cold collisions, ultracold gases, quantum information science, and condensed-matter physics. It is the purpose of this review to present the various control phenomena, which all rely on the same underlying physics, within a unified framework. To this end, recall the Hamiltonian for free rotations, assuming the rigid rotor approximation to be valid, and summarize the different ways for a rotor to interact with external electromagnetic fields. These interactions can be exploited for control—from achieving alignment, orientation, or laser cooling in a one-body framework, steering bimolecular collisions, or realizing a quantum computer or quantum simulator in the many-body setting.
AU - Koch, Christiane P.
AU - Lemeshko, Mikhail
AU - Sugny, Dominique
ID - 7396
IS - 3
JF - Reviews of Modern Physics
SN - 0034-6861
TI - Quantum control of molecular rotation
VL - 91
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Problems involving quantum impurities, in which one or a few particles are interacting with a macroscopic environment, represent a pervasive paradigm, spanning across atomic, molecular, and condensed-matter physics. In this paper we introduce new variational approaches to quantum impurities and apply them to the Fröhlich polaron–a quasiparticle formed out of an electron (or other point-like impurity) in a polar medium, and to the angulon–a quasiparticle formed out of a rotating molecule in a bosonic bath. We benchmark these approaches against established theories, evaluating their accuracy as a function of the impurity-bath coupling.
AU - Li, Xiang
AU - Bighin, Giacomo
AU - Yakaboylu, Enderalp
AU - Lemeshko, Mikhail
ID - 5886
JF - Molecular Physics
SN - 00268976
TI - Variational approaches to quantum impurities: from the Fröhlich polaron to the angulon
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - In 1915, Einstein and de Haas and Barnett demonstrated that changing the magnetization of a magnetic material results in mechanical rotation and vice versa. At the microscopic level, this effect governs the transfer between electron spin and orbital angular momentum, and lattice degrees of freedom, understanding which is key for molecular magnets, nano-magneto-mechanics, spintronics, and ultrafast magnetism. Until now, the timescales of electron-to-lattice angular momentum transfer remain unclear, since modeling this process on a microscopic level requires the addition of an infinite amount of quantum angular momenta. We show that this problem can be solved by reformulating it in terms of the recently discovered angulon quasiparticles, which results in a rotationally invariant quantum many-body theory. In particular, we demonstrate that nonperturbative effects take place even if the electron-phonon coupling is weak and give rise to angular momentum transfer on femtosecond timescales.
AU - Mentink, Johann H
AU - Katsnelson, Mikhail
AU - Lemeshko, Mikhail
ID - 6092
IS - 6
JF - Physical Review B
TI - Quantum many-body dynamics of the Einstein-de Haas effect
VL - 99
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We consider a two-component Bose gas in two dimensions at a low temperature with short-range repulsive interaction. In the coexistence phase where both components are superfluid, interspecies interactions induce a nondissipative drag between the two superfluid flows (Andreev-Bashkin effect). We show that this behavior leads to a modification of the usual Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) transition in two dimensions. We extend the renormalization of the superfluid densities at finite temperature using the renormalization-group approach and find that the vortices of one component have a large influence on the superfluid properties of the other, mediated by the nondissipative drag. The extended BKT flow equations indicate that the occurrence of the vortex unbinding transition in one of the components can induce the breakdown of superfluidity also in the other, leading to a locking phenomenon for the critical temperatures of the two gases.
AU - Karle, Volker
AU - Defenu, Nicolò
AU - Enss, Tilman
ID - 6632
IS - 6
JF - Physical Review A
SN - 24699926
TI - Coupled superfluidity of binary Bose mixtures in two dimensions
VL - 99
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - We demonstrate robust retention of valley coherence and its control via polariton pseudospin precession through the optical TE-TM splitting in bilayer WS2 microcavity exciton polaritons at room temperature.
AU - Khatoniar, Mandeep
AU - Yama, Nicholas
AU - Ghazaryan, Areg
AU - Guddala, Sriram
AU - Ghaemi, Pouyan
AU - Menon, Vinod
ID - 6646
SN - 9781943580576
T2 - CLEO: Applications and Technology
TI - Room temperature control of valley coherence in bilayer WS2 exciton polaritons
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Dipolar coupling plays a fundamental role in the interaction between electrically or magnetically polarized species such as magnetic atoms and dipolar molecules in a gas or dipolar excitons in the solid state. Unlike Coulomb or contactlike interactions found in many atomic, molecular, and condensed-matter systems, this interaction is long-ranged and highly anisotropic, as it changes from repulsive to attractive depending on the relative positions and orientation of the dipoles. Because of this unique property, many exotic, symmetry-breaking collective states have been recently predicted for cold dipolar gases, but only a few have been experimentally detected and only in dilute atomic dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates. Here, we report on the first observation of attractive dipolar coupling between excitonic dipoles using a new design of stacked semiconductor bilayers. We show that the presence of a dipolar exciton fluid in one bilayer modifies the spatial distribution and increases the binding energy of excitonic dipoles in a vertically remote layer. The binding energy changes are explained using a many-body polaron model describing the deformation of the exciton cloud due to its interaction with a remote dipolar exciton. The surprising nonmonotonic dependence on the cloud density indicates the important role of dipolar correlations, which is unique to dense, strongly interacting dipolar solid-state systems. Our concept provides a route for the realization of dipolar lattices with strong anisotropic interactions in semiconductor systems, which open the way for the observation of theoretically predicted new and exotic collective phases, as well as for engineering and sensing their collective excitations.
AU - Hubert, Colin
AU - Baruchi, Yifat
AU - Mazuz-Harpaz, Yotam
AU - Cohen, Kobi
AU - Biermann, Klaus
AU - Lemeshko, Mikhail
AU - West, Ken
AU - Pfeiffer, Loren
AU - Rapaport, Ronen
AU - Santos, Paulo
ID - 6786
IS - 2
JF - Physical Review X
TI - Attractive dipolar coupling between stacked exciton fluids
VL - 9
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We study few-body bound states of charged particles subject to attractive zero-range/short-range plus repulsive Coulomb interparticle forces. The characteristic length scales of the system at zero energy are set by the Coulomb length scale D and the Coulomb-modified effective range r eff. We study shallow bound states of charged particles with D >> r eff and show that these systems obey universal scaling laws different from neutral particles. An accurate description of these states requires both the Coulomb-modified scattering length and the effective range unless the Coulomb interaction is very weak (D -> ). Our findings are relevant for bound states whose spatial extent is significantly larger than the range of the attractive potential. These states enjoy universality – their character is independent of the shape of the short-range potential.
AU - Schmickler, C.H.
AU - Hammer, H.-W.
AU - Volosniev, Artem
ID - 6955
JF - Physics Letters B
SN - 0370-2693
TI - Universal physics of bound states of a few charged particles
VL - 798
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We study the effect of a linear tunneling coupling between two-dimensional systems, each separately
exhibiting the topological Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) transition. In the uncoupled limit, there
are two phases: one where the one-body correlation functions are algebraically decaying and the other with
exponential decay. When the linear coupling is turned on, a third BKT-paired phase emerges, in which one-body correlations are exponentially decaying, while two-body correlation functions exhibit power-law
decay. We perform numerical simulations in the paradigmatic case of two coupled XY models at finite
temperature, finding evidences that for any finite value of the interlayer coupling, the BKT-paired phase is
present. We provide a picture of the phase diagram using a renormalization group approach.
AU - Bighin, Giacomo
AU - Defenu, Nicolò
AU - Nándori, István
AU - Salasnich, Luca
AU - Trombettoni, Andrea
ID - 6940
IS - 10
JF - Physical Review Letters
SN - 0031-9007
TI - Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless paired phase in coupled XY models
VL - 123
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We developed a method to calculate two-photon processes in quantum mechanics that replaces the infinite summation over the intermediate states by a perturbation expansion. This latter consists of a series of commutators that involve position, momentum, and Hamiltonian quantum operators. We analyzed several single- and many-particle cases for which a closed-form solution to the perturbation expansion exists, as well as more complicated cases for which a solution is found by convergence. Throughout the article, Rayleigh and Raman scattering are taken as examples of two-photon processes. The present method provides a clear distinction between the Thomson scattering, regarded as classical scattering, and quantum contributions. Such a distinction lets us derive general results concerning light scattering. Finally, possible extensions to the developed formalism are discussed.
AU - Fratini, Filippo
AU - Safari, Laleh
AU - Amaro, Pedro
AU - Santos, José
ID - 294
IS - 4
JF - Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics
TI - Two-photon processes based on quantum commutators
VL - 97
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We demonstrate that identical impurities immersed in a two-dimensional many-particle bath can be viewed as flux-tube-charged-particle composites described by fractional statistics. In particular, we find that the bath manifests itself as an external magnetic flux tube with respect to the impurities, and hence the time-reversal symmetry is broken for the effective Hamiltonian describing the impurities. The emerging flux tube acts as a statistical gauge field after a certain critical coupling. This critical coupling corresponds to the intersection point between the quasiparticle state and the phonon wing, where the angular momentum is transferred from the impurity to the bath. This amounts to a novel configuration with emerging anyons. The proposed setup paves the way to realizing anyons using electrons interacting with superfluid helium or lattice phonons, as well as using atomic impurities in ultracold gases.
AU - Yakaboylu, Enderalp
AU - Lemeshko, Mikhail
ID - 195
IS - 4
JF - Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics
TI - Anyonic statistics of quantum impurities in two dimensions
VL - 98
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We present an approach to interacting quantum many-body systems based on the notion of quantum groups, also known as q-deformed Lie algebras. In particular, we show that, if the symmetry of a free quantum particle corresponds to a Lie group G, in the presence of a many-body environment this particle can be described by a deformed group, Gq. Crucially, the single deformation parameter, q, contains all the information about the many-particle interactions in the system. We exemplify our approach by considering a quantum rotor interacting with a bath of bosons, and demonstrate that extracting the value of q from closed-form solutions in the perturbative regime allows one to predict the behavior of the system for arbitrary values of the impurity-bath coupling strength, in good agreement with nonperturbative calculations. Furthermore, the value of the deformation parameter allows one to predict at which coupling strengths rotor-bath interactions result in a formation of a stable quasiparticle. The approach based on quantum groups does not only allow for a drastic simplification of impurity problems, but also provides valuable insights into hidden symmetries of interacting many-particle systems.
AU - Yakaboylu, Enderalp
AU - Shkolnikov, Mikhail
AU - Lemeshko, Mikhail
ID - 5794
IS - 25
JF - Physical Review Letters
SN - 00319007
TI - Quantum groups as hidden symmetries of quantum impurities
VL - 121
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We study a quantum impurity possessing both translational and internal rotational degrees of freedom interacting with a bosonic bath. Such a system corresponds to a “rotating polaron,” which can be used to model, e.g., a rotating molecule immersed in an ultracold Bose gas or superfluid helium. We derive the Hamiltonian of the rotating polaron and study its spectrum in the weak- and strong-coupling regimes using a combination of variational, diagrammatic, and mean-field approaches. We reveal how the coupling between linear and angular momenta affects stable quasiparticle states, and demonstrate that internal rotation leads to an enhanced self-localization in the translational degrees of freedom.
AU - Yakaboylu, Enderalp
AU - Midya, Bikashkali
AU - Deuchert, Andreas
AU - Leopold, Nikolai K
AU - Lemeshko, Mikhail
ID - 5983
IS - 22
JF - Physical Review B
SN - 2469-9950
TI - Theory of the rotating polaron: Spectrum and self-localization
VL - 98
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We introduce a diagrammatic Monte Carlo approach to angular momentum properties of quantum many-particle systems possessing a macroscopic number of degrees of freedom. The treatment is based on a diagrammatic expansion that merges the usual Feynman diagrams with the angular momentum diagrams known from atomic and nuclear structure theory, thereby incorporating the non-Abelian algebra inherent to quantum rotations. Our approach is applicable at arbitrary coupling, is free of systematic errors and of finite-size effects, and naturally provides access to the impurity Green function. We exemplify the technique by obtaining an all-coupling solution of the angulon model; however, the method is quite general and can be applied to a broad variety of systems in which particles exchange quantum angular momentum with their many-body environment.
AU - Bighin, Giacomo
AU - Tscherbul, Timur
AU - Lemeshko, Mikhail
ID - 6339
IS - 16
JF - Physical Review Letters
TI - Diagrammatic Monte Carlo approach to angular momentum in quantum many-particle systems
VL - 121
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Recently it was shown that a molecule rotating in a quantum solvent can be described in terms of the “angulon” quasiparticle [M. Lemeshko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 095301 (2017)]. Here we extend the angulon theory to the case of molecules possessing an additional spin-1/2 degree of freedom and study the behavior of the system in the presence of a static magnetic field. We show that exchange of angular momentum between the molecule and the solvent can be altered by the field, even though the solvent itself is non-magnetic. In particular, we demonstrate a possibility to control resonant emission of phonons with a given angular momentum using a magnetic field.
AU - Rzadkowski, Wojciech
AU - Lemeshko, Mikhail
ID - 415
IS - 10
JF - The Journal of Chemical Physics
TI - Effect of a magnetic field on molecule–solvent angular momentum transfer
VL - 148
ER -