TY - JOUR
AB - Area-dependent quantum field theory is a modification of two-dimensional topological quantum field theory, where one equips each connected component of a bordism with a positive real number—interpreted as area—which behaves additively under glueing. As opposed to topological theories, in area-dependent theories the state spaces can be infinite-dimensional. We introduce the notion of regularised Frobenius algebras in Hilbert spaces and show that area-dependent theories are in one-to-one correspondence to commutative regularised Frobenius algebras. We also provide a state sum construction for area-dependent theories. Our main example is two-dimensional Yang–Mills theory with compact gauge group, which we treat in detail.
AU - Runkel, Ingo
AU - Szegedy, Lorant
ID - 8816
IS - 1
JF - Communications in Mathematical Physics
SN - 00103616
TI - Area-dependent quantum field theory
VL - 381
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Studies on the experimental realization of two-dimensional anyons in terms of quasiparticles have been restricted, so far, to only anyons on the plane. It is known, however, that the geometry and topology of space can have significant effects on quantum statistics for particles moving on it. Here, we have undertaken the first step toward realizing the emerging fractional statistics for particles restricted to move on the sphere instead of on the plane. We show that such a model arises naturally in the context of quantum impurity problems. In particular, we demonstrate a setup in which the lowest-energy spectrum of two linear bosonic or fermionic molecules immersed in a quantum many-particle environment can coincide with the anyonic spectrum on the sphere. This paves the way toward the experimental realization of anyons on the sphere using molecular impurities. Furthermore, since a change in the alignment of the molecules corresponds to the exchange of the particles on the sphere, such a realization reveals a novel type of exclusion principle for molecular impurities, which could also be of use as a powerful technique to measure the statistics parameter. Finally, our approach opens up a simple numerical route to investigate the spectra of many anyons on the sphere. Accordingly, we present the spectrum of two anyons on the sphere in the presence of a Dirac monopole field.
AU - Brooks, Morris
AU - Lemeshko, Mikhail
AU - Lundholm, D.
AU - Yakaboylu, Enderalp
ID - 9005
IS - 1
JF - Physical Review Letters
SN - 00319007
TI - Molecular impurities as a realization of anyons on the two-sphere
VL - 126
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We employ the Gross-Pitaevskii equation to study acoustic emission generated in a uniform Bose gas by a static impurity. The impurity excites a sound-wave packet, which propagates through the gas. We calculate the shape of this wave packet in the limit of long wave lengths, and argue that it is possible to extract properties of the impurity by observing this shape. We illustrate here this possibility for a Bose gas with a trapped impurity atom -- an example of a relevant experimental setup. Presented results are general for all one-dimensional systems described by the nonlinear Schrödinger equation and can also be used in nonatomic systems, e.g., to analyze light propagation in nonlinear optical media. Finally, we calculate the shape of the sound-wave packet for a three-dimensional Bose gas assuming a spherically symmetric perturbation.
AU - Marchukov, Oleksandr
AU - Volosniev, Artem
ID - 9093
IS - 2
JF - SciPost Physics
SN - 2542-4653
TI - Shape of a sound wave in a weakly-perturbed Bose gas
VL - 10
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Sound propagation is a macroscopic manifestation of the interplay between the equilibrium thermodynamics and the dynamical transport properties of fluids. Here, for a two-dimensional system of ultracold fermions, we calculate the first and second sound velocities across the whole BCS-BEC crossover, and we analyze the system response to an external perturbation. In the low-temperature regime we reproduce the recent measurements [Phys. Rev. Lett. 124, 240403 (2020)] of the first sound velocity, which, due to the decoupling of density and entropy fluctuations, is the sole mode excited by a density probe. Conversely, a heat perturbation excites only the second sound, which, being sensitive to the superfluid depletion, vanishes in the deep BCS regime and jumps discontinuously to zero at the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless superfluid transition. A mixing between the modes occurs only in the finite-temperature BEC regime, where our theory converges to the purely bosonic results.
AU - Tononi, A.
AU - Cappellaro, Alberto
AU - Bighin, Giacomo
AU - Salasnich, L.
ID - 9606
IS - 6
JF - Physical Review A
SN - 24699926
TI - Propagation of first and second sound in a two-dimensional Fermi superfluid
VL - 103
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The relative motion of three impenetrable particles on a ring, in our case two identical fermions and one impurity, is isomorphic to a triangular quantum billiard. Depending on the ratio κ of the impurity and fermion masses, the billiards can be integrable or non-integrable (also referred to in the main text as chaotic). To set the stage, we first investigate the energy level distributions of the billiards as a function of 1/κ ∈ [0, 1] and find no evidence of integrable cases beyond the limiting values 1/κ = 1 and 1/κ = 0. Then, we use machine learning tools to analyze properties of probability distributions of individual quantum states. We find that convolutional neural networks can correctly classify integrable and non-integrable states. The decisive features of the wave functions are the normalization and a large number of zero elements, corresponding to the existence of a nodal line. The network achieves typical accuracies of 97%, suggesting that machine learning tools can be used to analyze and classify the morphology of probability densities obtained in theory or experiment.
AU - Huber, David
AU - Marchukov, Oleksandr V.
AU - Hammer, Hans Werner
AU - Volosniev, Artem
ID - 9679
IS - 6
JF - New Journal of Physics
TI - Morphology of three-body quantum states from machine learning
VL - 23
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - When short-range attractions are combined with long-range repulsions in colloidal particle systems, complex microphases can emerge. Here, we study a system of isotropic particles, which can form lamellar structures or a disordered fluid phase when temperature is varied. We show that, at equilibrium, the lamellar structure crystallizes, while out of equilibrium, the system forms a variety of structures at different shear rates and temperatures above melting. The shear-induced ordering is analyzed by means of principal component analysis and artificial neural networks, which are applied to data of reduced dimensionality. Our results reveal the possibility of inducing ordering by shear, potentially providing a feasible route to the fabrication of ordered lamellar structures from isotropic particles.
AU - Pȩkalski, J.
AU - Rzadkowski, Wojciech
AU - Panagiotopoulos, A. Z.
ID - 7956
IS - 20
JF - The Journal of chemical physics
TI - Shear-induced ordering in systems with competing interactions: A machine learning study
VL - 152
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Organic materials are known to feature long spin-diffusion times, originating in a generally small spin–orbit coupling observed in these systems. From that perspective, chiral molecules acting as efficient spin selectors pose a puzzle that attracted a lot of attention in recent years. Here, we revisit the physical origins of chiral-induced spin selectivity (CISS) and propose a simple analytic minimal model to describe it. The model treats a chiral molecule as an anisotropic wire with molecular dipole moments aligned arbitrarily with respect to the wire’s axes and is therefore quite general. Importantly, it shows that the helical structure of the molecule is not necessary to observe CISS and other chiral nonhelical molecules can also be considered as potential candidates for the CISS effect. We also show that the suggested simple model captures the main characteristics of CISS observed in the experiment, without the need for additional constraints employed in the previous studies. The results pave the way for understanding other related physical phenomena where the CISS effect plays an essential role.
AU - Ghazaryan, Areg
AU - Paltiel, Yossi
AU - Lemeshko, Mikhail
ID - 7968
IS - 21
JF - The Journal of Physical Chemistry C
SN - 1932-7447
TI - Analytic model of chiral-induced spin selectivity
VL - 124
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Alignment of OCS, CS2, and I2 molecules embedded in helium nanodroplets is measured as a function
of time following rotational excitation by a nonresonant, comparatively weak ps laser pulse. The distinct
peaks in the power spectra, obtained by Fourier analysis, are used to determine the rotational, B, and
centrifugal distortion, D, constants. For OCS, B and D match the values known from IR spectroscopy. For
CS2 and I2, they are the first experimental results reported. The alignment dynamics calculated from the
gas-phase rotational Schrödinger equation, using the experimental in-droplet B and D values, agree in
detail with the measurement for all three molecules. The rotational spectroscopy technique for molecules in
helium droplets introduced here should apply to a range of molecules and complexes.
AU - Chatterley, Adam S.
AU - Christiansen, Lars
AU - Schouder, Constant A.
AU - Jørgensen, Anders V.
AU - Shepperson, Benjamin
AU - Cherepanov, Igor
AU - Bighin, Giacomo
AU - Zillich, Robert E.
AU - Lemeshko, Mikhail
AU - Stapelfeldt, Henrik
ID - 8170
IS - 1
JF - Physical Review Letters
SN - 00319007
TI - Rotational coherence spectroscopy of molecules in Helium nanodroplets: Reconciling the time and the frequency domains
VL - 125
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Inspired by the possibility to experimentally manipulate and enhance chemical reactivity in helium nanodroplets, we investigate the effective interaction and the resulting correlations between two diatomic molecules immersed in a bath of bosons. By analogy with the bipolaron, we introduce the biangulon quasiparticle describing two rotating molecules that align with respect to each other due to the effective attractive interaction mediated by the excitations of the bath. We study this system in different parameter regimes and apply several theoretical approaches to describe its properties. Using a Born–Oppenheimer approximation, we investigate the dependence of the effective intermolecular interaction on the rotational state of the two molecules. In the strong-coupling regime, a product-state ansatz shows that the molecules tend to have a strong alignment in the ground state. To investigate the system in the weak-coupling regime, we apply a one-phonon excitation variational ansatz, which allows us to access the energy spectrum. In comparison to the angulon quasiparticle, the biangulon shows shifted angulon instabilities and an additional spectral instability, where resonant angular momentum transfer between the molecules and the bath takes place. These features are proposed as an experimentally observable signature for the formation of the biangulon quasiparticle. Finally, by using products of single angulon and bare impurity wave functions as basis states, we introduce a diagonalization scheme that allows us to describe the transition from two separated angulons to a biangulon as a function of the distance between the two molecules.
AU - Li, Xiang
AU - Yakaboylu, Enderalp
AU - Bighin, Giacomo
AU - Schmidt, Richard
AU - Lemeshko, Mikhail
AU - Deuchert, Andreas
ID - 8587
IS - 16
JF - The Journal of Chemical Physics
KW - Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
KW - General Physics and Astronomy
SN - 0021-9606
TI - Intermolecular forces and correlations mediated by a phonon bath
VL - 152
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Dipolar (or spatially indirect) excitons (IXs) in semiconductor double quantum well (DQW) subjected to an electric field are neutral species with a dipole moment oriented perpendicular to the DQW plane. Here, we theoretically study interactions between IXs in stacked DQW bilayers, where the dipolar coupling can be either attractive or repulsive depending on the relative positions of the particles. By using microscopic band structure calculations to determine the electronic states forming the excitons, we show that the attractive dipolar interaction between stacked IXs deforms their electronic wave function, thereby increasing the inter-DQW interaction energy and making the IX even more electrically polarizable. Many-particle interaction effects are addressed by considering the coupling between a single IX in one of the DQWs to a cloud of IXs in the other DQW, which is modeled either as a closed-packed lattice or as a continuum IX fluid. We find that the lattice model yields IX interlayer binding energies decreasing with increasing lattice density. This behavior is due to the dominating role of the intra-DQW dipolar repulsion, which prevents more than one exciton from entering the attractive region of the inter-DQW coupling. Finally, both models shows that the single IX distorts the distribution of IXs in the adjacent DQW, thus inducing the formation of an IX dipolar polaron (dipolaron). While the interlayer binding energy reduces with IX density for lattice dipolarons, the continuous polaron model predicts a nonmonotonous dependence on density in semiquantitative agreement with a recent experimental study [cf. Hubert et al., Phys. Rev. X 9, 021026 (2019)].
AU - Hubert, C.
AU - Cohen, K.
AU - Ghazaryan, Areg
AU - Lemeshko, Mikhail
AU - Rapaport, R.
AU - Santos, P. V.
ID - 8588
IS - 4
JF - Physical Review B
SN - 2469-9950
TI - Attractive interactions, molecular complexes, and polarons in coupled dipolar exciton fluids
VL - 102
ER -