@article{719,
abstract = {The ubiquity of computation in modern machines and devices imposes a need to assert the correctness of their behavior. Especially in the case of safety-critical systems, their designers need to take measures that enforce their safe operation. Formal methods has emerged as a research field that addresses this challenge: by rigorously proving that all system executions adhere to their specifications, the correctness of an implementation under concern can be assured. To achieve this goal, a plethora of techniques are nowadays available, all of which are optimized for different system types and application domains.},
author = {Chatterjee, Krishnendu and Ehlers, Rüdiger},
issn = {00015903},
journal = {Acta Informatica},
number = {6},
pages = {543 -- 544},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{Special issue: Synthesis and SYNT 2014}},
doi = {10.1007/s00236-017-0299-0},
volume = {54},
year = {2017},
}
@inproceedings{1009,
abstract = {A standard objective in partially-observable Markov decision processes (POMDPs) is to find a policy that maximizes the expected discounted-sum payoff. However, such policies may still permit unlikely but highly undesirable outcomes, which is problematic especially in safety-critical applications. Recently, there has been a surge of interest in POMDPs where the goal is to maximize the probability to ensure that the payoff is at least a given threshold, but these approaches do not consider any optimization beyond satisfying this threshold constraint. In this work we go beyond both the “expectation” and “threshold” approaches and consider a “guaranteed payoff optimization (GPO)” problem for POMDPs, where we are given a threshold t and the objective is to find a policy σ such that a) each possible outcome of σ yields a discounted-sum payoff of at least t, and b) the expected discounted-sum payoff of σ is optimal (or near-optimal) among all policies satisfying a). We present a practical approach to tackle the GPO problem and evaluate it on standard POMDP benchmarks.},
author = {Chatterjee, Krishnendu and Novotny, Petr and Pérez, Guillermo and Raskin, Jean and Zikelic, Djordje},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the 31st AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence},
location = {San Francisco, CA, United States},
pages = {3725 -- 3732},
publisher = {AAAI Press},
title = {{Optimizing expectation with guarantees in POMDPs}},
volume = {5},
year = {2017},
}
@article{1066,
abstract = {Simulation is an attractive alternative to language inclusion for automata as it is an under-approximation of language inclusion, but usually has much lower complexity. Simulation has also been extended in two orthogonal directions, namely, (1) fair simulation, for simulation over specified set of infinite runs; and (2) quantitative simulation, for simulation between weighted automata. While fair trace inclusion is PSPACE-complete, fair simulation can be computed in polynomial time. For weighted automata, the (quantitative) language inclusion problem is undecidable in general, whereas the (quantitative) simulation reduces to quantitative games, which admit pseudo-polynomial time algorithms.
In this work, we study (quantitative) simulation for weighted automata with Büchi acceptance conditions, i.e., we generalize fair simulation from non-weighted automata to weighted automata. We show that imposing Büchi acceptance conditions on weighted automata changes many fundamental properties of the simulation games, yet they still admit pseudo-polynomial time algorithms.},
author = {Chatterjee, Krishnendu and Henzinger, Thomas A and Otop, Jan and Velner, Yaron},
journal = {Information and Computation},
number = {2},
pages = {143 -- 166},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{Quantitative fair simulation games}},
doi = {10.1016/j.ic.2016.10.006},
volume = {254},
year = {2017},
}
@article{1080,
abstract = {Reconstructing the evolutionary history of metastases is critical for understanding their basic biological principles and has profound clinical implications. Genome-wide sequencing data has enabled modern phylogenomic methods to accurately dissect subclones and their phylogenies from noisy and impure bulk tumour samples at unprecedented depth. However, existing methods are not designed to infer metastatic seeding patterns. Here we develop a tool, called Treeomics, to reconstruct the phylogeny of metastases and map subclones to their anatomic locations. Treeomics infers comprehensive seeding patterns for pancreatic, ovarian, and prostate cancers. Moreover, Treeomics correctly disambiguates true seeding patterns from sequencing artifacts; 7% of variants were misclassified by conventional statistical methods. These artifacts can skew phylogenies by creating illusory tumour heterogeneity among distinct samples. In silico benchmarking on simulated tumour phylogenies across a wide range of sample purities (15–95%) and sequencing depths (25-800 × ) demonstrates the accuracy of Treeomics compared with existing methods.},
author = {Reiter, Johannes and Makohon Moore, Alvin and Gerold, Jeffrey and Božić, Ivana and Chatterjee, Krishnendu and Iacobuzio Donahue, Christine and Vogelstein, Bert and Nowak, Martin},
issn = {20411723},
journal = {Nature Communications},
publisher = {Nature Publishing Group},
title = {{Reconstructing metastatic seeding patterns of human cancers}},
doi = {10.1038/ncomms14114},
volume = {8},
year = {2017},
}
@article{1294,
abstract = {We study controller synthesis problems for finite-state Markov decision processes, where the objective is to optimize the expected mean-payoff performance and stability (also known as variability in the literature). We argue that the basic notion of expressing the stability using the statistical variance of the mean payoff is sometimes insufficient, and propose an alternative definition. We show that a strategy ensuring both the expected mean payoff and the variance below given bounds requires randomization and memory, under both the above definitions. We then show that the problem of finding such a strategy can be expressed as a set of constraints.},
author = {Brázdil, Tomáš and Chatterjee, Krishnendu and Forejt, Vojtěch and Kučera, Antonín},
journal = {Journal of Computer and System Sciences},
pages = {144 -- 170},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{Trading performance for stability in Markov decision processes}},
doi = {10.1016/j.jcss.2016.09.009},
volume = {84},
year = {2017},
}
@article{466,
abstract = {We consider Markov decision processes (MDPs) with multiple limit-average (or mean-payoff) objectives. There exist two different views: (i) the expectation semantics, where the goal is to optimize the expected mean-payoff objective, and (ii) the satisfaction semantics, where the goal is to maximize the probability of runs such that the mean-payoff value stays above a given vector. We consider optimization with respect to both objectives at once, thus unifying the existing semantics. Precisely, the goal is to optimize the expectation while ensuring the satisfaction constraint. Our problem captures the notion of optimization with respect to strategies that are risk-averse (i.e., ensure certain probabilistic guarantee). Our main results are as follows: First, we present algorithms for the decision problems which are always polynomial in the size of the MDP. We also show that an approximation of the Pareto-curve can be computed in time polynomial in the size of the MDP, and the approximation factor, but exponential in the number of dimensions. Second, we present a complete characterization of the strategy complexity (in terms of memory bounds and randomization) required to solve our problem. },
author = {Chatterjee, Krishnendu and Křetínská, Zuzana and Kretinsky, Jan},
issn = {18605974},
journal = {Logical Methods in Computer Science},
number = {2},
publisher = {International Federation of Computational Logic},
title = {{Unifying two views on multiple mean-payoff objectives in Markov decision processes}},
doi = {10.23638/LMCS-13(2:15)2017},
volume = {13},
year = {2017},
}
@inbook{625,
abstract = {In the analysis of reactive systems a quantitative objective assigns a real value to every trace of the system. The value decision problem for a quantitative objective requires a trace whose value is at least a given threshold, and the exact value decision problem requires a trace whose value is exactly the threshold. We compare the computational complexity of the value and exact value decision problems for classical quantitative objectives, such as sum, discounted sum, energy, and mean-payoff for two standard models of reactive systems, namely, graphs and graph games.},
author = {Chatterjee, Krishnendu and Doyen, Laurent and Henzinger, Thomas A},
booktitle = {Models, Algorithms, Logics and Tools},
editor = {Aceto, Luca and Bacci, Giorgio and Ingólfsdóttir, Anna and Legay, Axel and Mardare, Radu},
issn = {03029743},
pages = {367 -- 381},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{The cost of exactness in quantitative reachability}},
doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-63121-9_18},
volume = {10460},
year = {2017},
}
@inproceedings{1011,
abstract = {Pushdown systems (PDSs) and recursive state machines (RSMs), which are linearly equivalent, are standard models for interprocedural analysis. Yet RSMs are more convenient as they (a) explicitly model function calls and returns, and (b) specify many natural parameters for algorithmic analysis, e.g., the number of entries and exits. We consider a general framework where RSM transitions are labeled from a semiring and path properties are algebraic with semiring operations, which can model, e.g., interprocedural reachability and dataflow analysis problems. Our main contributions are new algorithms for several fundamental problems. As compared to a direct translation of RSMs to PDSs and the best-known existing bounds of PDSs, our analysis algorithm improves the complexity for finite-height semirings (that subsumes reachability and standard dataflow properties). We further consider the problem of extracting distance values from the representation structures computed by our algorithm, and give efficient algorithms that distinguish the complexity of a one-time preprocessing from the complexity of each individual query. Another advantage of our algorithm is that our improvements carry over to the concurrent setting, where we improve the bestknown complexity for the context-bounded analysis of concurrent RSMs. Finally, we provide a prototype implementation that gives a significant speed-up on several benchmarks from the SLAM/SDV project.},
author = {Chatterjee, Krishnendu and Kragl, Bernhard and Mishra, Samarth and Pavlogiannis, Andreas},
editor = {Yang, Hongseok},
issn = {03029743},
location = {Uppsala, Sweden},
pages = {287 -- 313},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{Faster algorithms for weighted recursive state machines}},
doi = {10.1007/978-3-662-54434-1_11},
volume = {10201},
year = {2017},
}
@article{512,
abstract = {The fixation probability is the probability that a new mutant introduced in a homogeneous population eventually takes over the entire population. The fixation probability is a fundamental quantity of natural selection, and known to depend on the population structure. Amplifiers of natural selection are population structures which increase the fixation probability of advantageous mutants, as compared to the baseline case of well-mixed populations. In this work we focus on symmetric population structures represented as undirected graphs. In the regime of undirected graphs, the strongest amplifier known has been the Star graph, and the existence of undirected graphs with stronger amplification properties has remained open for over a decade. In this work we present the Comet and Comet-swarm families of undirected graphs. We show that for a range of fitness values of the mutants, the Comet and Cometswarm graphs have fixation probability strictly larger than the fixation probability of the Star graph, for fixed population size and at the limit of large populations, respectively. },
author = {Pavlogiannis, Andreas and Tkadlec, Josef and Chatterjee, Krishnendu and Nowak, Martin},
issn = {20452322},
journal = {Scientific Reports},
number = {1},
publisher = {Nature Publishing Group},
title = {{Amplification on undirected population structures: Comets beat stars}},
doi = {10.1038/s41598-017-00107-w},
volume = {7},
year = {2017},
}
@misc{5456,
abstract = {We present a new dynamic partial-order reduction method for stateless model checking of concurrent programs. A common approach for exploring program behaviors relies on enumerating the traces of the program, without storing the visited states (aka stateless exploration). As the number of distinct traces grows exponentially, dynamic partial-order reduction (DPOR) techniques have been successfully used to partition the space of traces into equivalence classes (Mazurkiewicz partitioning), with the goal of exploring only few representative traces from each class.
We introduce a new equivalence on traces under sequential consistency semantics, which we call the observation equivalence. Two traces are observationally equivalent if every read event observes the same write event in both traces. While the traditional Mazurkiewicz equivalence is control-centric, our new definition is data-centric. We show that our observation equivalence is coarser than the Mazurkiewicz equivalence, and in many cases even exponentially coarser. We devise a DPOR exploration of the trace space, called data-centric DPOR, based on the observation equivalence.
1. For acyclic architectures, our algorithm is guaranteed to explore exactly one representative trace from each observation class, while spending polynomial time per class. Hence, our algorithm is optimal wrt the observation equivalence, and in several cases explores exponentially fewer traces than any enumerative method based on the Mazurkiewicz equivalence.
2. For cyclic architectures, we consider an equivalence between traces which is finer than the observation equivalence; but coarser than the Mazurkiewicz equivalence, and in some cases is exponentially coarser. Our data-centric DPOR algorithm remains optimal under this trace equivalence.
Finally, we perform a basic experimental comparison between the existing Mazurkiewicz-based DPOR and our data-centric DPOR on a set of academic benchmarks. Our results show a significant reduction in both running time and the number of explored equivalence classes.},
author = {Chalupa, Marek and Chatterjee, Krishnendu and Pavlogiannis, Andreas and Sinha, Nishant and Vaidya, Kapil},
issn = {2664-1690},
pages = {36},
publisher = {IST Austria},
title = {{Data-centric dynamic partial order reduction}},
doi = {10.15479/AT:IST-2017-872-v1-1},
year = {2017},
}
@inproceedings{551,
abstract = {Evolutionary graph theory studies the evolutionary dynamics in a population structure given as a connected graph. Each node of the graph represents an individual of the population, and edges determine how offspring are placed. We consider the classical birth-death Moran process where there are two types of individuals, namely, the residents with fitness 1 and mutants with fitness r. The fitness indicates the reproductive strength. The evolutionary dynamics happens as follows: in the initial step, in a population of all resident individuals a mutant is introduced, and then at each step, an individual is chosen proportional to the fitness of its type to reproduce, and the offspring replaces a neighbor uniformly at random. The process stops when all individuals are either residents or mutants. The probability that all individuals in the end are mutants is called the fixation probability, which is a key factor in the rate of evolution. We consider the problem of approximating the fixation probability. The class of algorithms that is extremely relevant for approximation of the fixation probabilities is the Monte-Carlo simulation of the process. Previous results present a polynomial-time Monte-Carlo algorithm for undirected graphs when r is given in unary. First, we present a simple modification: instead of simulating each step, we discard ineffective steps, where no node changes type (i.e., either residents replace residents, or mutants replace mutants). Using the above simple modification and our result that the number of effective steps is concentrated around the expected number of effective steps, we present faster polynomial-time Monte-Carlo algorithms for undirected graphs. Our algorithms are always at least a factor O(n2/ log n) faster as compared to the previous algorithms, where n is the number of nodes, and is polynomial even if r is given in binary. We also present lower bounds showing that the upper bound on the expected number of effective steps we present is asymptotically tight for undirected graphs. },
author = {Chatterjee, Krishnendu and Ibsen-Jensen, Rasmus and Nowak, Martin},
booktitle = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics},
isbn = {978-395977046-0},
location = {Aalborg, Denmark},
publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik},
title = {{Faster Monte Carlo algorithms for fixation probability of the Moran process on undirected graphs}},
doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2017.61},
volume = {83},
year = {2017},
}
@inproceedings{1194,
abstract = {Termination is one of the basic liveness properties, and we study the termination problem for probabilistic programs with real-valued variables. Previous works focused on the qualitative problem that asks whether an input program terminates with probability~1 (almost-sure termination). A powerful approach for this qualitative problem is the notion of ranking supermartingales with respect to a given set of invariants. The quantitative problem (probabilistic termination) asks for bounds on the termination probability. A fundamental and conceptual drawback of the existing approaches to address probabilistic termination is that even though the supermartingales consider the probabilistic behavior of the programs, the invariants are obtained completely ignoring the probabilistic aspect. In this work we address the probabilistic termination problem for linear-arithmetic probabilistic programs with nondeterminism. We define the notion of {\em stochastic invariants}, which are constraints along with a probability bound that the constraints hold. We introduce a concept of {\em repulsing supermartingales}. First, we show that repulsing supermartingales can be used to obtain bounds on the probability of the stochastic invariants. Second, we show the effectiveness of repulsing supermartingales in the following three ways: (1)~With a combination of ranking and repulsing supermartingales we can compute lower bounds on the probability of termination; (2)~repulsing supermartingales provide witnesses for refutation of almost-sure termination; and (3)~with a combination of ranking and repulsing supermartingales we can establish persistence properties of probabilistic programs. We also present results on related computational problems and an experimental evaluation of our approach on academic examples. },
author = {Chatterjee, Krishnendu and Novotny, Petr and Zikelic, Djordje},
issn = {07308566},
location = {Paris, France},
number = {1},
pages = {145 -- 160},
publisher = {ACM},
title = {{Stochastic invariants for probabilistic termination}},
doi = {10.1145/3009837.3009873},
volume = {52},
year = {2017},
}
@article{467,
abstract = {Recently there has been a significant effort to handle quantitative properties in formal verification and synthesis. While weighted automata over finite and infinite words provide a natural and flexible framework to express quantitative properties, perhaps surprisingly, some basic system properties such as average response time cannot be expressed using weighted automata or in any other known decidable formalism. In this work, we introduce nested weighted automata as a natural extension of weighted automata, which makes it possible to express important quantitative properties such as average response time. In nested weighted automata, a master automaton spins off and collects results from weighted slave automata, each of which computes a quantity along a finite portion of an infinite word. Nested weighted automata can be viewed as the quantitative analogue of monitor automata, which are used in runtime verification. We establish an almost-complete decidability picture for the basic decision problems about nested weighted automata and illustrate their applicability in several domains. In particular, nested weighted automata can be used to decide average response time properties.},
author = {Chatterjee, Krishnendu and Henzinger, Thomas A and Otop, Jan},
issn = {15293785},
journal = {ACM Transactions on Computational Logic (TOCL)},
number = {4},
publisher = {ACM},
title = {{Nested weighted automata}},
doi = {10.1145/3152769},
volume = {18},
year = {2017},
}
@inproceedings{645,
abstract = {Markov decision processes (MDPs) are standard models for probabilistic systems with non-deterministic behaviours. Long-run average rewards provide a mathematically elegant formalism for expressing long term performance. Value iteration (VI) is one of the simplest and most efficient algorithmic approaches to MDPs with other properties, such as reachability objectives. Unfortunately, a naive extension of VI does not work for MDPs with long-run average rewards, as there is no known stopping criterion. In this work our contributions are threefold. (1) We refute a conjecture related to stopping criteria for MDPs with long-run average rewards. (2) We present two practical algorithms for MDPs with long-run average rewards based on VI. First, we show that a combination of applying VI locally for each maximal end-component (MEC) and VI for reachability objectives can provide approximation guarantees. Second, extending the above approach with a simulation-guided on-demand variant of VI, we present an anytime algorithm that is able to deal with very large models. (3) Finally, we present experimental results showing that our methods significantly outperform the standard approaches on several benchmarks.},
author = {Ashok, Pranav and Chatterjee, Krishnendu and Daca, Przemyslaw and Kretinsky, Jan and Meggendorfer, Tobias},
editor = {Majumdar, Rupak and Kunčak, Viktor},
isbn = {978-331963386-2},
location = {Heidelberg, Germany},
pages = {201 -- 221},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{Value iteration for long run average reward in markov decision processes}},
doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-63387-9_10},
volume = {10426},
year = {2017},
}
@article{671,
abstract = {Humans routinely use conditionally cooperative strategies when interacting in repeated social dilemmas. They are more likely to cooperate if others cooperated before, and are ready to retaliate if others defected. To capture the emergence of reciprocity, most previous models consider subjects who can only choose from a restricted set of representative strategies, or who react to the outcome of the very last round only. As players memorize more rounds, the dimension of the strategy space increases exponentially. This increasing computational complexity renders simulations for individuals with higher cognitive abilities infeasible, especially if multiplayer interactions are taken into account. Here, we take an axiomatic approach instead. We propose several properties that a robust cooperative strategy for a repeated multiplayer dilemma should have. These properties naturally lead to a unique class of cooperative strategies, which contains the classical Win-Stay Lose-Shift rule as a special case. A comprehensive numerical analysis for the prisoner's dilemma and for the public goods game suggests that strategies of this class readily evolve across various memory-n spaces. Our results reveal that successful strategies depend not only on how cooperative others were in the past but also on the respective context of cooperation.},
author = {Hilbe, Christian and Martinez, Vaquero and Chatterjee, Krishnendu and Nowak, Martin},
issn = {00278424},
journal = {PNAS},
number = {18},
pages = {4715 -- 4720},
publisher = {National Academy of Sciences},
title = {{Memory-n strategies of direct reciprocity}},
doi = {10.1073/pnas.1621239114},
volume = {114},
year = {2017},
}
@inproceedings{950,
abstract = {Two-player games on graphs are widely studied in formal methods as they model the interaction between a system and its environment. The game is played by moving a token throughout a graph to produce an infinite path. There are several common modes to determine how the players move the token through the graph; e.g., in turn-based games the players alternate turns in moving the token. We study the bidding mode of moving the token, which, to the best of our knowledge, has never been studied in infinite-duration games. Both players have separate budgets, which sum up to $1$. In each turn, a bidding takes place. Both players submit bids simultaneously, and a bid is legal if it does not exceed the available budget. The winner of the bidding pays his bid to the other player and moves the token. For reachability objectives, repeated bidding games have been studied and are called Richman games. There, a central question is the existence and computation of threshold budgets; namely, a value t\in [0,1] such that if\PO's budget exceeds $t$, he can win the game, and if\PT's budget exceeds 1-t, he can win the game. We focus on parity games and mean-payoff games. We show the existence of threshold budgets in these games, and reduce the problem of finding them to Richman games. We also determine the strategy-complexity of an optimal strategy. Our most interesting result shows that memoryless strategies suffice for mean-payoff bidding games.
},
author = {Avni, Guy and Henzinger, Thomas A and Chonev, Ventsislav K},
issn = {1868-8969},
location = {Berlin, Germany},
publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik},
title = {{Infinite-duration bidding games}},
doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CONCUR.2017.21},
volume = {85},
year = {2017},
}
@article{684,
abstract = {We generalize winning conditions in two-player games by adding a structural acceptance condition called obligations. Obligations are orthogonal to the linear winning conditions that define whether a play is winning. Obligations are a declaration that player 0 can achieve a certain value from a configuration. If the obligation is met, the value of that configuration for player 0 is 1. We define the value in such games and show that obligation games are determined. For Markov chains with Borel objectives and obligations, and finite turn-based stochastic parity games with obligations we give an alternative and simpler characterization of the value function. Based on this simpler definition we show that the decision problem of winning finite turn-based stochastic parity games with obligations is in NP∩co-NP. We also show that obligation games provide a game framework for reasoning about p-automata. © 2017 The Association for Symbolic Logic.},
author = {Chatterjee, Krishnendu and Piterman, Nir},
issn = {Obligation blackwell games and p-automata},
journal = {Journal of Symbolic Logic},
number = {2},
pages = {420 -- 452},
publisher = {Cambridge University Press},
title = {{Obligation blackwell games and p-automata}},
doi = {10.1017/jsl.2016.71},
volume = {82},
year = {2017},
}
@inproceedings{711,
abstract = {Nested weighted automata (NWA) present a robust and convenient automata-theoretic formalism for quantitative specifications. Previous works have considered NWA that processed input words only in the forward direction. It is natural to allow the automata to process input words backwards as well, for example, to measure the maximal or average time between a response and the preceding request. We therefore introduce and study bidirectional NWA that can process input words in both directions. First, we show that bidirectional NWA can express interesting quantitative properties that are not expressible by forward-only NWA. Second, for the fundamental decision problems of emptiness and universality, we establish decidability and complexity results for the new framework which match the best-known results for the special case of forward-only NWA. Thus, for NWA, the increased expressiveness of bidirectionality is achieved at no additional computational complexity. This is in stark contrast to the unweighted case, where bidirectional finite automata are no more expressive but exponentially more succinct than their forward-only counterparts.},
author = {Chatterjee, Krishnendu and Henzinger, Thomas A and Otop, Jan},
issn = {18688969},
location = {Berlin, Germany},
publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik},
title = {{Bidirectional nested weighted automata}},
doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CONCUR.2017.5},
volume = {85},
year = {2017},
}
@inproceedings{552,
abstract = {Graph games provide the foundation for modeling and synthesis of reactive processes. Such games are played over graphs where the vertices are controlled by two adversarial players. We consider graph games where the objective of the first player is the conjunction of a qualitative objective (specified as a parity condition) and a quantitative objective (specified as a meanpayoff condition). There are two variants of the problem, namely, the threshold problem where the quantitative goal is to ensure that the mean-payoff value is above a threshold, and the value problem where the quantitative goal is to ensure the optimal mean-payoff value; in both cases ensuring the qualitative parity objective. The previous best-known algorithms for game graphs with n vertices, m edges, parity objectives with d priorities, and maximal absolute reward value W for mean-payoff objectives, are as follows: O(nd+1 . m . w) for the threshold problem, and O(nd+2 · m · W) for the value problem. Our main contributions are faster algorithms, and the running times of our algorithms are as follows: O(nd-1 · m ·W) for the threshold problem, and O(nd · m · W · log(n · W)) for the value problem. For mean-payoff parity objectives with two priorities, our algorithms match the best-known bounds of the algorithms for mean-payoff games (without conjunction with parity objectives). Our results are relevant in synthesis of reactive systems with both functional requirement (given as a qualitative objective) and performance requirement (given as a quantitative objective).},
author = {Chatterjee, Krishnendu and Henzinger, Monika and Svozil, Alexander},
booktitle = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics},
isbn = {978-395977046-0},
location = {Aalborg, Denmark},
publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik},
title = {{Faster algorithms for mean payoff parity games}},
doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2017.39},
volume = {83},
year = {2017},
}
@article{653,
abstract = {The extent of heterogeneity among driver gene mutations present in naturally occurring metastases - that is, treatment-naive metastatic disease - is largely unknown. To address this issue, we carried out 60× whole-genome sequencing of 26 metastases from four patients with pancreatic cancer. We found that identical mutations in known driver genes were present in every metastatic lesion for each patient studied. Passenger gene mutations, which do not have known or predicted functional consequences, accounted for all intratumoral heterogeneity. Even with respect to these passenger mutations, our analysis suggests that the genetic similarity among the founding cells of metastases was higher than that expected for any two cells randomly taken from a normal tissue. The uniformity of known driver gene mutations among metastases in the same patient has critical and encouraging implications for the success of future targeted therapies in advanced-stage disease.},
author = {Makohon Moore, Alvin and Zhang, Ming and Reiter, Johannes and Božić, Ivana and Allen, Benjamin and Kundu, Deepanjan and Chatterjee, Krishnendu and Wong, Fay and Jiao, Yuchen and Kohutek, Zachary and Hong, Jungeui and Attiyeh, Marc and Javier, Breanna and Wood, Laura and Hruban, Ralph and Nowak, Martin and Papadopoulos, Nickolas and Kinzler, Kenneth and Vogelstein, Bert and Iacobuzio Donahue, Christine},
issn = {10614036},
journal = {Nature Genetics},
number = {3},
pages = {358 -- 366},
publisher = {Nature Publishing Group},
title = {{Limited heterogeneity of known driver gene mutations among the metastases of individual patients with pancreatic cancer}},
doi = {10.1038/ng.3764},
volume = {49},
year = {2017},
}